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THE AIRWAYS

The body needs oxygen for practically all of its vital processes. This is why we breathe – approx. 20,000 times per day. During breathing, air passes through the upper airways – which include the nasal area with its conchae (special membranes) and sinuses – via the pharynx into the lower airways. After passing through the bronchi, the oxygen in the inhaled air is passed through the skin of the air sacs in the lung (alveoli) into the body’s arteries.
The red blood corpuscles absorb it there and supply it to wherever it is needed in the body.

An adult lung has some 300 million alveoli. Altogether, they have a surface area of approx. 100 square metres
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Our airways –
an ingenious system

Our airways not only transport air, but at the same time ensure that it is warmed, humidified and cleaned. At the very moment of breathing in, the many tiny hairs in the nose filter out particles of dirt and the air is humidified and warmed by a sort of air conditioning system. This is why it is very important for us to be able to breathe through the nose.

Also, our airways, from the depths of the lungs, through the larynx and right up to the nose and sinuses, are coated with a special membrane which acts as a sort of ‘washing machine’ to clean the air. Initially, fine particles of dirt or pathogens contained in the air we breathe stick to the mucous layer, which is being constantly regenerated.

Countless tiny hair-like filaments on the surface of the membrane ensure that the mucus moves in the direction of the pharynx. The best way to visualise this is to think of a cornfield swaying in the wind. With this rhythmic toing and froing, the filaments act like a conveyor belt, constantly transporting the mucus and the alien material and pathogens in it towards the pharynx.
Here, the mucus is usually involuntarily swallowed and finds its way into the stomach, where the pathogens are neutralised. The membrane in the airways therefore has a dual function: that of a protective shield and a cleaning system at the same time.

Read here to find out what happens when the defence mechanism of our airways is overstretched. Every day, a healthy bronchial membrane produces 100 ml of mucus.

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Our airways –
an ingenious system

Our airways not only transport air, but at the same time ensure that it is warmed, humidified and cleaned. At the very moment of breathing in, the many tiny hairs in the nose filter out particles of dirt and the air is humidified and warmed by a sort of air conditioning system. This is why it is very important for us to be able to breathe through the nose.

 

 

GeloMyrtol® forte – Active ingredient: distillate of a mixture of rectified eucalyptus oil, rectified sweet orange oil, rectified myrtle oil and rectified lemon oil (66:32:1:1) (Myrtol® standardized). Indicated for acute and chronic bronchitis and inflammation of the maxillary sinuses (sinusitis). For information on risks and side effects, read the package leaflet and ask your doctor or pharmacist. G. Pohl-Boskamp GmbH & Co. KG, 25551 Hohenlockstedt, Germany (01/6).
Nitrolingual akut® Spray – Active ingredient: glyceryl trinitrate. Composition: 1 metered dose oromucusal spray contains 0.4 mg glyceryl trinitrate. Other ingredients: medium-chain triglycerides and partial glycerides, ethanol anhydrans, peppermint oil. Indications: prophylaxis and treatment of acute attacks of angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, acute left-ventricular heart failure, catheter-induced coronary spasms. Contraindications: hypersensitivity to any of the ingredients or other nitrate compounds, acute circulatory failure, cardiogenic shock, marked hypotension (syst BP < 90 mmHg), intake of phosphodiesterase inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction or pulmonary arterial hypertension. Caution in cases of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, constrictive pericarditis, pericardial tamponade, low filling pressures (e.g. in cases of acute MI; avoid syst BP < 90 mmHg), aortic and/or mitral stenosis, orthostatic circulatory disorders, increased intracranial pressure. During pregnancy and breast-feeding, only after careful consideration whether the benefits outweigh the risks. Side effects: headache very frequent at the start of treatment, frequent hypotension with reflex tachycardia, drowsiness, dizziness and weakness. Occasional nausea, vomiting, flush, allergic skin reactions, marked decreases in blood pressure with exacerbation of angina pectoris symptoms, bradycardia with fainting. Very rare, exfoliative dermatitis. Development of tolerance and cross tolerance possible, avoid continuous high dosing. Hypoxaemia and ischaemia may occur in CHD. The ability to drive vehicles or operate machines may be impaired, especially in combination with alcohol consumption. PO. G. Pohl-Boskamp GmbH & Co. KG, 25551 Hohenlockstedt, Germany (1).
Baldurat® – Active ingredient: dry extract of valerian root (3 - 6 : 1) [extraction agent: 70% ethanol (V/V)]. Indicated for the treatment of restlessness and disturbances in going sleep of nervous origin. For information on risks and side effects, read the package leaflet and ask your doctor or pharmacist. G. Pohl-Boskamp GmbH & Co. KG, D-25551 Hohenlockstedt, Germany (July 2001).
GeloProsed® powder for oral use. For the relief of symptoms from common cold and flu such as pain, headaches, sore throat and fever, if they go along with swelling of the mucous membrane of the nose. For adults, elderly people and adolescents above the age of 12. Composition: 1 pouch contains 1000 mg paracetamol, 12.2 mg phenylephrine hydrochloride. Contains aspartame and sodium carbonate. For risks and side effects read the package insert and ask your doctor or pharmacist. G. Pohl-Boskamp GmbH & Co. KG, 25551 Hohenlockstedt (3)
Lacteol® Pulver – Active ingredient: lyophilised lactic acid bacteria inactivated in their own culture medium. For the symptomatic treatment of diarrhoea of nonorganic origin. Warnings: contains lactose and sucrose (sugars). For information on risks and side effects, read the package leaflet and ask your doctor or pharmacist. G. Pohl-Boskamp GmbH & Co. KG, 25551 Hohenlockstedt, Germany (6).
Lacteol® Pulver – Active ingredient: lyophilised lactic acid bacteria inactivated in their own culture medium. For the symptomatic treatment of diarrhoea of nonorganic origin. Warnings: contains lactose and sucrose (sugars). For information on risks and side effects, read the package leaflet and ask your doctor or pharmacist. G. Pohl-Boskamp GmbH & Co. KG, 25551 Hohenlockstedt, Germany (6).
Nitrolingual® infus. – Active ingredient: glycerol trinitrate. Composition: 1 ml infusion solution contains 1 mg glycerol trinitrate. Other ingredients: glucose monohydrate (Ph.Eur.), 10% hydrochloric acid solution (for pH adjustment), water for injections. Indications: severe angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, acute left-ventricular heart failure, hypertensive crisis with acute heart failure, controlled hypotension. Contraindications: hypersensitivity to any of the ingredients or other nitrate compounds, acute circulatory failure, cardiogenic shock, toxic pulmonary oedema, marked hypotension (syst BP < 90 mmHg), disorders with increased intracranial pressure, intake of phosphodiesterase inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction or pulmonary arterial hypertension. Caution in cases of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, constrictive pericarditis, pericardial tamponade, low filling pressures (e.g. in cases of acute MI; avoid syst BP < 90 mmHg), aortic and/or mitral valve stenosis, tendency to orthostatic circulatory disorders, severe liver or kidney disturbances. During pregnancy and breast-feeding, only if prescribed by a physician. Side effects: headache very frequent at the start of treatment; hypotension with reflex tachycardia may occur. Occasional nausea, vomiting, flush, allergic skin reactions, marked decreases in blood pressure with exacerbation of angina pectoris symptoms, bradycardia with fainting and synopses. Very rare, exfoliative dermatitis. Development of tolerance and cross tolerance possible, avoid continuous high dosing. Hypoxaemia and ischaemia may occur in CHD. The ability to drive vehicles or operate machines may be impaired, especially in combination with alcohol consumption. PO. G. Pohl-Boskamp GmbH & Co. KG, 25551 Hohenlockstedt, Germany (July 2008).
GeloBronchial®-Saft – Active ingredient: liquid extract of thyme. Indications: common cold like disorders of the airways with catarrh, alleviation of symptoms of bronchitis. Warning: Ingredients include invert sugar syrup and 6.3 Vol.-% alcohol. Diabetics: sugar content of 0.75 BEU per 15 mL syrup. For information on risks and side effects, read the package leaflet and ask your doctor or pharmacist. G. Pohl-Boskamp GmbH & Co. KG, 25551 Hohenlockstedt, Germany (01/11).
GeloDurat®-Salbe – Active ingredient: eucalyptus oil and levomenthol. For external use to alleviate the symptoms of  respiratory tract infections (common cold, hoarseness and uncomplicated bronchial catarrh). For information on risks and side effects, read the package leaflet and ask your doctor or pharmacist. G. Pohl-Boskamp GmbH & Co. KG, 25551 Hohenlockstedt, Germany (01/5).